What happened at Fukushima

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What happened at Fukushima

Innlegg Panther 14 Mar 2011, 12:43

http://morgsatlarge.wordpress.com/2011/03/13/why-i-am-not-worried-about-japans-nuclear-reactors/

I am writing this text (Mar 12) to give you some peace of mind regarding some of the troubles in Japan, that is the safety of Japan’s nuclear reactors. Up front, the situation is serious, but under control. And this text is long! But you will know more about nuclear power plants after reading it than all journalists on this planet put together.

There was and will *not* be any significant release of radioactivity.

By “significant” I mean a level of radiation of more than what you would receive on – say – a long distance flight, or drinking a glass of beer that comes from certain areas with high levels of natural background radiation.

I have been reading every news release on the incident since the earthquake. There has not been one single (!) report that was accurate and free of errors (and part of that problem is also a weakness in the Japanese crisis communication). By “not free of errors” I do not refer to tendentious anti-nuclear journalism – that is quite normal these days. By “not free of errors” I mean blatant errors regarding physics and natural law, as well as gross misinterpretation of facts, due to an obvious lack of fundamental and basic understanding of the way nuclear reactors are build and operated. I have read a 3 page report on CNN where every single paragraph contained an error.

We will have to cover some fundamentals, before we get into what is going on.


I know this is a fairly full on statement from someone posting his very first blog. It will also be far and away the most well written, intelligent post I ever make (I hope!) It also means I am not responsible for its content.

This post is by Dr Josef Oehmen, a research scientist at MIT, in Boston.

He is a PhD Scientist, whose father has extensive experience in Germany’s nuclear industry. I asked him to write this information to my family in Australia, who were being made sick with worry by the media reports coming from Japan. I am republishing it with his permission.

It is a few hours old, so if any information is out of date, blame me for the delay in getting it published.

This is his text in full and unedited. It is very long, so get comfy.
Ken-G. Johansen.
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Japan Does Not Face Another Chernobyl

Innlegg Panther 16 Mar 2011, 10:44

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704893604576198421680697248.html?mod=wsj_share_facebook

The containment structures appear to be working, and the latest reactor designs aren't vulnerable to the coolant problem at issue here.

By WILLIAM TUCKER
Even while thousands of people are reported dead or missing, whole neighborhoods lie in ruins, and gas and oil fires rage out of control, press coverage of the Japanese earthquake has quickly settled on the troubles at two nuclear reactors as the center of the catastrophe.

Rep. Ed Markey (D., Mass.), a longtime opponent of nuclear power, has warned of "another Chernobyl" and predicted "the same thing could happen here." In response, he has called for an immediate suspension of licensing procedures for the Westinghouse AP1000, a "Generation III" reactor that has been laboring through design review at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for seven years.

Before we respond with such panic, though, it would be useful to review exactly what is happening in Japan and what we have to fear from it.
Ken-G. Johansen.
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Morning Bell: Nuclear Facts to Remember While Following Japa

Innlegg Panther 16 Mar 2011, 10:46

http://blog.heritage.org/2011/03/14/morning-bell-nuclear-facts-to-remember-while-following-japan/?utm_source=Newsletter&utm_medium=Email&utm_campaign=Morning%2BBell

Posted March 14th, 2011 at 8:52am in American Leadership, Energy and Environment

he true scope of the devastation in Japan caused by Friday’s earthquake and tsunami are still unknown. While the official death toll has surpassed 1,000, the police chief of the Miyagi Prefecture said Sunday there is “no question” that at least 10,000 people have died in just his region alone. Japan has mobilized 100,000 troops for rescue missions, and at least three U.S. Navy ships of the USS Ronald Reagan strike group are assisting in relief efforts. Yet, despite the gravity of the situation, some on the left in this country are already politicizing the disaster to score points against the nuclear power industry.

Representative Edward Markey (D–MA) released a statement Saturday comparing the current situation in Japan to Chernobyl and called on the Obama Administration to impose a moratorium on all new nuclear reactors. What is happening in Japan right now is nothing like Chernobyl, and imposing a moratorium on the nuclear industry would be as big a policy blunder as the Obama Administration’s offshore drilling moratorium after the Deepwater Horizon explosion.

The cable news networks and newspapers are filled with frightening headlines like “Radioactive Releases in Japan Could Last Months” that will aid Markey’s anti-nuclear crusade. But the reality is far removed from the hype. Here are some cold hard facts to keep in mind as news continues to come in from Japan:
Ken-G. Johansen.
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A Nuclear History Lesson: Three Mile Island

Innlegg Panther 16 Mar 2011, 10:49

http://www.facebook.com/notes/alex-epstein/a-nuclear-history-lesson-three-mile-island/132456613493778

by Alex Epstein on Tuesday, March 15, 2011 at 12:22am

By Petr Beckmann, written in 1979. Here is the link http://www.accesstoenergy.com/view/atea ... 6a4219.htm (Note that though Beckmann argues that nuclear pollutes less than fossil fuels, he was a strong advocate of fossil fuels, on the grounds that at his time [and this applies today] they are essential sources of industrial scale power and that "No energy is worse than no energy.")

THE GRAND DISASTER: WHY NO CASUALTIES?
Everybody knows that the greatest "catastrophe" in the history of nuclear power resulted in zero dead, zero injured and zero diseased; but not everybody can see through the four big frauds promulgated by the media and by the politicians catering to them.

"It was a close shave; a meltdown was only narrowly averted." This is two frauds in one. First, there never was a time when a meltdown was close; it was held off by several lines of defense and would not have set in even if further malfunctions had occurred. Second, a meltdown would not have been the end of the world, either: The purpose of the containment building is to contain radioactivity after a meltdown has taken place, and even if it, too, fails, there would still have to be a very unusual weather situation before there could be large-scale loss of life.

The third fraud is "Scientists told us that an accident like this is virtually impossible, but now it has happened." What scientists have been saying, and continue to say, is that there is an extremely low probability of a nuclear accident with massive loss of life. This writer, for example, does not have to re-write a solitary line of his book The Health Hazards of Not Going Nuclear, and does not hesitate to recommend it to those who wish to understand why the zero death toll at Harrisburg was not merely "lucky."(*) Politicians who now pretend to have been duped into thinking that a nuclear accident, especially one with no loss of life, was impossible, not only falsely claim that they were told engineers are infallible and mechanical failures unheard of, but in effect they now pompously proclaim that they were dumb enough to believe it.

The fourth fraud is that "The much touted safeguards failed on Three Mile Island." They did not. Nuclear safety is not based on this or that gadget, but on two principles by which to contain any unforeseen events that might occur. One is the defense in depth, a multi-layered system of defense belts around the only danger point, the reactor core.</span>
<span>The two major bulwarks of this defense are the Emergency Core Cooling System and the containment building. Both were the main targets of the anti-nuclear obstructionists, and both performed superbly. Every honest scientist and every informed citizen will be reassured by a defense system that stood up to a freakish series of five independent, horrible failures and human errors under the most aggravating conditions.
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Fukushima is a triumph for nuke power: Build more reactors n

Innlegg Panther 16 Mar 2011, 10:50

http://www.theregister.co.uk/2011/03/14/fukushiima_analysis/

By Lewis Page • Get more from this author

Posted in Physics, 14th March 2011 13:58 GMT

Analysis Japan's nuclear powerplants have performed magnificently in the face of a disaster hugely greater than they were designed to withstand, remaining entirely safe throughout and sustaining only minor damage. The unfolding Fukushima story has enormously strengthened the case for advanced nations – including Japan – to build more nuclear powerplants, in the knowledge that no imaginable disaster can result in serious problems.

Let's recap on what's happened so far. The earthquake which hit on Friday was terrifically powerful, shaking the entire planet on its axis and jolting the whole of Japan several feet sideways. At 8.9 on the Richter scale, it was some five times stronger than the older Fukushima plants had been designed to cope with.

If nuclear powerplants were merely as safe as they are advertised to be, there should have been a major failure right then. As the hot cores ceased to be cooled by the water which is used to extract power from them, control rods would have remained withdrawn and a runaway chain reaction could have ensued – probably resulting in the worst thing that can happen to a properly designed nuclear reactor: a core meltdown in which the superhot fuel rods actually melt and slag down the whole core into a blob of molten metal. In this case the only thing to do is seal up the containment and wait: no radiation disaster will take place1, but the reactor is a total writeoff and cooling the core off will be difficult and take a long time. Eventual cleanup will be protracted and expensive.

In fact, though the quake was far beyond design limits, all the reactors went into automatic shutdown perfectly: triumph number one. Control rods slammed into the cores, absorbing the neutrons spitting from the fuel rods and pinching off the uranium-fission chain reactions powering the plant.
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Jonah Goldberg: Talk about a meltdown

Innlegg Panther 16 Mar 2011, 10:52

http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/commentary/la-oe-goldberg-japan-20110315,0,5406257.column

By Jonah Goldberg
March 15, 2011

When a loved one dies (as my brother did last month), one of the standard pieces of advice is to not make any big decisions. Don't reorganize your life in a moment of existential panic or remorse. Take your time. Cope.

But when thousands die, or when some sudden calamity befalls us, the tendency of politicians, journalists, policymakers and experts is to seize the moment to advocate radical changes. "A crisis," Rahm Emanuel famously declared in the early days of the Obama administration, "is a terrible thing to waste."

That this axiom didn't generate more controversy always struck me as bizarre. I mean, shouldn't it be "a crisis is a terrible thing to exploit"?

So here we go again in Japan, where the tragedy is literally too terrible to comprehend. The death toll, the scale — the whole nation moved 8 to 12 feet — the suddenness: It all overwhelms.

And yet the search for scapegoats and the thirst to confirm one's preferred policies kicked in almost immediately.

The most egregious examples were attempts to link, no matter how tenuously, the earthquake with climate change. Though in fairness, such balderdash has been far less common than it was in the wake of the Asian tsunami of 2004, never mind the riot of idiocy after Hurricane Katrina in 2005 (when, for example, Robert F. Kennedy Jr. blamed Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour: "Now we are all learning what it's like to reap the whirlwind of fossil-fuel dependence which Barbour and his cronies have encouraged.").

This time, all eyes seem to be on the nuclear industry. Part of the problem is the news media's burning desire to cover the earthquake as if it is not just "breaking news" but a calamity unfolding "live." Relatively safe cleanup efforts are less exciting than possible impending doom.

Meanwhile, opponents of nuclear power are pouncing not on the actual facts but on the climate of fear. The reactors aren't completely contained yet, but the vast majority of nuclear experts made it clear early on that there were would be no "Chernobyl" in Japan. The design of the Japanese reactors is simply superior to that ancient Soviet design (in part because the Russians built Chernobyl to allow harvesting of material for nuclear bombs). Radioactive smoke was inevitable at Chernobyl, which had no containment structure. Risks abound, but similar smoke in Japan remains unlikely.
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Re: What happened at Fukushima

Innlegg Panther 16 Mar 2011, 11:07

http://atomicinsights.blogspot.com/

Wednesday, March 16, 2011
Why am I so adamant about the impressive performance of Japan's nuclear plants
by Rod Adams

You might be hard pressed to gather more than a handful of people who agree with me, even if you live in a place where there are a lot of nuclear professionals. I continue to be impressed by the way that Japan's nuclear plants - like all nuclear plants designed and built to standards that have been in place almost worldwide for more than 40 years - have been able to withstand the worst that nature can throw at them without harming anyone that is not inside the fence line.

I have not checked the news for about twelve hours, and I am sure that there will be some event or another that will have been breathlessly reported during that time. I remain confident in saying that there will be no significant releases of radioactive material outside of the plant boundaries even if one or more cores melts, even if a containment building is "breached", and even if the workers find it impossible to fill the cooling pools with additional water. That is not a statement meant to express a cavalier attitude. It is not meant to express complacency or to diminish the work that the heroes at the plant are doing.

Aside: Yes, for those who have been following me for the past few days, I am officially revising my opinion - the workers are heroes and not just admirable employees. I apologize for my earlier statement, but it was made a couple of days ago when I thought they would soon be establishing a less stressful routine condition. End Aside.

The workers at the plant are striving to prevent the worst possible event, but the worst possible event is just not all that consequential for anyone except the plant owner and the people who will have to pay higher power bills for many years due to the loss of low marginal cost generating capacity.

There are many reasons I can maintain confidence about that outcome in the face of a constant barrage of scare stories. First of all, I rarely watch television news and rarely pick up a newspaper to browse the front pages. I do not even listen to the radio very often. Many years ago, I discovered a whole world of information and news where I get to pick the stories I want to have on MY front page and where I can dig into stories that are important to people in the farthest reaches of the globe. I get to decide what information is important to me, so please do not ask me anything about goings on in Hollywood - I haven't a clue.

Secondly, I have had the great pleasure of getting to know Ted Rockwell, one of the most experienced, knowledgeable and down to earth engineers you would ever want to meet. One of the many gifts he has shared with me is a short, two page article that he and 10 of his most esteemed colleagues published in Science Magazine in the 20 September 2002 issue.
Ken-G. Johansen.
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Re: What happened at Fukushima

Innlegg Panther 16 Mar 2011, 11:31

http://www.theobjectivestandard.com/blog/index.php/2011/03/chernobyl-schmernobyl-the-japanese-are-competent/

Tuesday, March 15, 2011
Chernobyl Schmernobyl: The Japanese are Competent
Posted by Joshua Lipana at 1:33 pm

Bilde

In the wake of the earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan last week, anti-technology opportunists all over the world are racing to leverage the disaster. In particular, they’re claiming that the problems in Japan’s nuclear reactors prove the excessive danger of nuclear energy. Another Chernobyl, we’re told, could be moments away.

William Tucker, however, writing in the Wall Street Journal, explains that the fear mongering is unfounded and that Japan Does Not Face Another Chernobyl:

The core of a nuclear reactor operates at about 550 degrees Fahrenheit, well below the temperature of a coal furnace and only slightly hotter than a kitchen oven. If anything unusual occurs, the control rods immediately drop, shutting off the nuclear reaction. You can’t have a “runaway reactor,” nor can a reactor explode like a nuclear bomb. A commercial reactor is to a bomb what Vaseline is to napalm. Although both are made from petroleum jelly, only one of them has potentially explosive material.

If a meltdown does occur in Japan, it will be a disaster for the Tokyo Electric Power Company but not for the general public. Whatever steam releases occur will have a negligible impact. Researchers have spent 30 years trying to find health effects from the steam releases at Three Mile Island and have come up with nothing.


It is also worth noting that the relatively free and correspondingly competent Japanese of today are nothing like the essentially enslaved and thus practically helpless Soviets of the 1980s. To compare the current situation with that of the Chernobyl disaster is to ignore the vast difference between the two cultures. Whereas the Soviet Union’s totalitarian system largely prevented men from using their minds, Japan’s highly liberated economy enables men to think, to produce, to excel. Because men in modern-day Japan have been relatively free to deal with reality in accordance with their rational judgment, they have been able to produce nuclear power plants of exceptionally high quality and safety. And for the same reason, the Japanese will solve the problems at hand in due course.

Tough luck, anti-technology zealots, you won’t find any leverage here. Unfortunately, that won’t stop the leftist media from pretending that you have.

It is further worth noting that whereas the Soviets attempted to hide the facts of the Chernobyl disaster, the Japanese are constantly updating the world on their problems and their efforts to resolve them.

(For a more technical explanation of why the nuclear reactors in Japan are not the major concern that many are making them out to be, see Morgsatlarge’s post, “Why I am not worried about Japan’s nuclear reactors.” And to aid the Japanese in this crisis, please donate to the Red Cross.)
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Re: What happened at Fukushima

Innlegg Panther 17 Mar 2011, 11:47

http://mitnse.com/2011/03/16/radiation-introduction-and-radiation-status-for-fukushima/

Introduction to Radiation Health Effects and Radiation Status at Fukushima
Posted on March 16, 2011 11:39 pm UTC by mitnse

What is radiation? Where does it come from and what is it used for?

Ionizing radiation and its effects on the human body

What are the health effects of various doses/dose rates?

Radiation released from reactors at Fukushima and what it means

Radiation dose rate history at the Fukushima Daiichi site perimeter
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Editorial: A Meltdown Of Fearmongers

Innlegg Panther 17 Mar 2011, 11:53

http://www.investors.com/NewsAndAnalysis/Article/566089/201103151907/A-Meltdown-Of-Fearmongers.htm

For more than half a century, the Navy has operated for more than 5,800 reactor years and steamed over 136 million miles without accident or radioactive release.

The radiation leaking from the damaged reactors at Fukushima is dangerous and poses health risks and consequences. But so does the fossil-fuel pollution such reactors replace on a daily basis. These are the "greenhouse" gases environmentalists warn will disastrously change our climate.

One can argue that the reactors at Fukushima were poorly designed or just based on an outdated design. As William Saletan reports in Slate, the reactor where the crisis began, Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1, is one of Japan's oldest — two weeks from its 40-year expiration date when the quake hit.

Saletan also notes that according to an analysis last year by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, plants being constructed by today's standards are 1,600 times safer than early nuclear plants.
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Re: What happened at Fukushima

Innlegg Panther 17 Mar 2011, 12:44

http://www.latimes.com/news/science/la-chat-transcipt-nuclear-safety-201130316,0,563480.story

How safe is nuclear power?
Chat transcript: Nuclear scientist Elmer E. Lewis expert discusses the realities of nuclear power

Elmer E. Lewis, professor emeritus at Northwestern University and author of two textbooks on nuclear power, took questions about the effort to contain reactors damaged by the earthquake and tsunami in Japan. Lewis' research has focused on the broad problems of dealing with the physics, safety and reliability of nuclear systems.

"The combination of an earthquake of unprecedented intensity followed immediately by a tsunami of historical proportions in Japan has resulted in the most serious nuclear reactor accidents in decades," Lewis said. "Understandably, the uncertainty associated with the further progression of the partial melting of the reactor cores has engendered a great deal of psychological trauma as well as media attention.

"However, it appears that loss of life to the public -- if any -- caused by the radiation releases from these accidents will be minuscule when compared to the thousands of deaths caused by the earthquake and tsunami."

Photos: Scenes of earthquake destruction

Here's the transcript of the chat (moderated by L.A. Times staff writer Ron Lin with help from reader engagement editor Martin Beck):
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Re: What happened at Fukushima

Innlegg Panther 20 Mar 2011, 12:00

http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/japan-boosts-efforts-to-regain-control-of-unstable-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-plant/2011/03/19/ABpa3Bv_story.html

Edano said that the radiation levels detected by government scientists in milk and spinach in Ibaraki and Fukushima prefectures were not high enough to be harmful. Traces of radioactive iodine also were discovered in tap water in Tokyo and other cities, Kyodo News Service reported late Saturday, though again, officials said the amount was negligible.
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Re: What happened at Fukushima

Innlegg Panther 20 Mar 2011, 13:06

http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/plecture/bmonreal11/

A scientific assessment. "The worst case radiation hazards from Fukushima are mitigatable and local."
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Japan: whatever happened to the nuclear meltdown?

Innlegg Panther 21 Mar 2011, 17:37

http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/jamesdelingpole/100080636/japan-whatever-happened-to-the-nuclear-meltdown/

Amazing, isn’t it, what a little light military intervention can do to a nuclear crisis?

One minute, the world is facing nuclear meltdown armageddon to rank with – ooh, Three Mile Island at the very least, and quite possibly Chernobyl. A few (shockingly expensive) missile strikes over Benghazi and Tripoli later, though, and the Japanese nuclear crisis has all but vanished from the face of the earth.

Maybe we should start small wars more often. Or maybe – even better – the MSM could learn to start reporting on nuclear incidents like journalists instead of activists from Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth.

I’m with Lewis Page on this one. In the Register, he writes:

As one who earns his living in the media these days, I can only apologise on behalf of my profession for the unbelievable levels of fear and misinformation purveyed this week. I have never been so ashamed to call myself a journalist.

Page puts the Fukushima incident in its proper perspective:

The Fukushima reactors actually came through the quake with flying colours despite the fact that it was five times stronger than they had been built to withstand. Only with the following tsunami – again, bigger than the design allowed for – did problems develop, and these problems seem likely to end in insignificant consequences. The Nos 1, 2 and 3 reactors at Daiichi may never produce power again – though this is not certain – but the likelihood is that Nos 4, 5 and 6 will return to service behind a bigger tsunami barrier.

The lesson to learn here is that if your country is hit by a monster earthquake and tsunami, one of the safest places to be is at the local nuclear powerplant. Other Japanese nuclear powerplants in the quake-stricken area, in fact, are sheltering homeless refugees in their buildings – which are some of the few in the region left standing at all, let alone with heating, water and other amenities.

Nothing else in the quake-stricken area has come through anything like as well as the nuclear power stations, or with so little harm to the population. All other forms of infrastructure – transport, housing, industries – have failed the people in and around them comprehensively, leading to deaths most probably in the tens of thousands. Fires, explosions and tank/pipeline ruptures all across the region will have done incalculably more environmental damage, distributed hugely greater amounts of carcinogens than Fukushima Daiichi – which has so far emitted almost nothing but radioactive steam (which becomes non-radioactive within minutes of being generated).

And yet nobody will say after this: “don’t build roads; don’t build towns; don’t build ships or chemical plants or oil refineries or railways”. That would be ridiculous, of course, even though having all those things has actually led to terrible loss of life, destruction and pollution in the quake’s wake.

But far and away more ridiculously, a lot of people are already saying that Fukushima with its probable zero consequences means that no new nuclear powerplants should ever be built again.
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Mer radioaktiv stråling i Oslo enn i Tokyo

Innlegg Panther 22 Mar 2011, 12:49

http://www.vg.no/nyheter/utenriks/jordskjelv-i-japan/artikkel.php?artid=10091253

Forsker Sunniva Siem er mer bekymret for stråledosene nordmenn får ved å bo i hus med mye radon. Kjernefysikeren mener frykten for radioaktivitet er overdrevet og tror at arbeiderne ved atomkraftverket i Fukushima er utsatt for minimal kreftrisiko. En forutsetning er at kraftselskapet som driver kraftverket, respekterer grenseverdiene for hvor mye stråling de ansatte kan utsettes for, skriver Vårt Land.


Strålenivået her er tre ganger så høyt som normalt. I tillegg regner det i dag, og da blir det allerede høye strålenivået doblet. Men det er likevel lavere enn på en vanlig dag i Stockholm, sier Grim til avisa Jyllands-Posten. Han befinner seg for tiden i Tokyo.
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