Medisin

Diskusjon om teknologi, teknologiske fremskritt, ny vitenskap, etc.

Medisin

Innlegg QIQrrr 08 Jul 2010, 23:19

NIAID, July 8, 2010: Scientists have discovered two potent human antibodies that can stop more than 90 percent of known global HIV strains from infecting human cells in the laboratory, and have demonstrated how one of these proteins accomplishes this feat. With this knowledge, they have begun to design components of a candidate vaccine that could teach the human immune system to make antibodies that might prevent infection by the vast majority of HIV strains worldwide - NIH-Led Scientists Find Antibodies that Prevent Most HIV Strains from Infecting Human Cells

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    This image shows the atomic structure of the antibody VRC01 (blue and green) binding to
    HIV (grey and red). The precise site of VRC01-HIV binding (red) is a subset of the area of
    viral attachment to the primary immune cells HIV infects.
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"Atlas was permitted the opinion that he was at liberty, if he wished, to drop the Earth and creep away; but this opinion was all that he was permitted" - Franz Kafka
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Re: Medisin

Innlegg QIQrrr 09 Jul 2010, 21:53

Wired, July 9, 2010: In 2008, Darpa, the Pentagon’s blue sky research arm, launched the Blood Pharming program, with the goal of manufacturing mega doses of universal donor red blood units. Now Arteriocyte, the biotech firm that got $1.95 million for the project, has sent off an initial shipment of their pharmed blood product to the Food and Drug Administration. While Darpa is largely after an endless stream of war-zone blood, Brown, whose company uses technology created at Johns Hopkins, thinks pharmed blood would have several advantages over relying on the real stuff. A single unit of pharmed blood currently runs them $5,000. Still, given the price tag of transporting and storing donated blood, Darpa’s betting that a unit of pharmed blood will make financial sense once it costs less than $1,000. Human trials aren’t likely until 2013, but the Pentagon could invoke “emergency protocol” to snag the blood sooner — Brown predicts military use within five years - Darpa's Genetically Engineered Blood Starts Pumping
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"Atlas was permitted the opinion that he was at liberty, if he wished, to drop the Earth and creep away; but this opinion was all that he was permitted" - Franz Kafka
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Malaria

Innlegg QIQrrr 16 Jul 2010, 23:35

Kanskje genetisk modifiserte mygg kan løse malaria-problemet:

    Medical Daily, July 15, 2010: Around 1 million people die each year from malaria, most of them children, from a parasitic infection transmitted by mosquitoes. Researchers have created a mosquito that is unable to infect humans with malaria. The University of Arizona team reported that their genetically modified mosquitoes are immune to the malaria-causing parasite, a single-cell organism called Plasmodium. It may well possibly one day replace wild mosquitoes with lab-bred mosquitoes that cannot infect humans with malaria, researchers said. "If you want to effectively stop the spreading of the malaria parasite, you need mosquitoes that are no less than 100 percent resistant to it. If a single parasite slips through and infects a human, the whole approach will be doomed to fail," research leader and entomology professor Michael Riehle said. Riehle and his colleagues tested their genetically-altered mosquitoes by feeding them malaria-infested blood. Not even one mosquito became infected with the malaria parasite. "We were surprised at how well this works. We were just hoping to see some effect on the mosquitoes' growth rate, lifespan or their susceptibility to the parasite, but it was great to see that our construct blocked the infection process completely," Riehle said - First 'Malaria-Proof' mosquito created

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      Under UV light, this mosquito larva reveals a red fluorescent marker in its
      nervous system, causing its eyes and nerve fibers to glow. The presence of
      the marker tells the researchers that this individual carries the genetic
      construct that renders it immune to the malaria parasite.
      (Photo: M. Riehle)
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Re: Medisin

Innlegg QIQrrr 05 Aug 2010, 02:40

Office of Naval Research, August 4, 2010: Neurobiologists funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) have discovered a potential cure for degenerative vision diseases leading to terminal blindness. The solution may be rooted in an unconventional therapeutic approach. Scientists at the Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research in Basel, Switzerland, are manipulating the proteins that cause blindness in mice. The scientists have successfully restored vision in the light-sensing cells of the retina. Dr. Thomas McKenna, program officer for ONR’s Neural Computation Program, said this research has significant future implications. “This technology shows great promise for the partial restoration of vision for blind patients,” McKenna said - ONR Researchers Look to the Future for Defeating Blindness
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"Atlas was permitted the opinion that he was at liberty, if he wished, to drop the Earth and creep away; but this opinion was all that he was permitted" - Franz Kafka
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NDM-1

Innlegg QIQrrr 11 Aug 2010, 14:24

WHO kunngjorde i går at svineinfluensaen er over, men ifølge denne fremstillingen, som virker svært overdramatisert, har det nå dukket opp en ny "superbakterie" som truer menneskeheten:

    The Daily Telegraph, August 11, 2010: A new superbug being brought into Britain by patients having surgery abroad could make antibiotics redundant, researchers have warned. The new bug is resistant to almost all antibiotics and there are none in development which can combat it meaning it is likely to spread worldwide, according to international experts. Co-authors of the research, Prof Timothy Walsh from Cardiff University, and Prof David Livermore, from the Health Protection Agency, wrote in the paper: "The NDM-1 problem is likely to get substantially worse in the foreseeable future.... "The potential for wider international spread and for NDM-1 to become endemic worldwide, are clear and frightening." The team found NDM-1 carried by young women with urinary tract infections but not other illness and in patient who are vulnerable after having kidney transplants and cancer treatment. A victim of a road traffic accident in India developed an infection with NDM-1 in the bones of his fractured foot and another was infected in their wound after a 'tummy tuck' operation. Prof Livermore said: "These are not bacteria that are historically very harmful to humans but medicine has got better at keeping people alive with conditions that would normally have killed them and they can be exploited by these bacteria. "The risk is that you have an enzyme with very major resistant and if it combined with a particularly nasty bacterium, then that would be a concern" - New superbug could make antibiotics 'redundant'
Ifølge Lancet finnes det to typer antibiotika som virker mot denne bakterietypen: tigecycline og colistin.
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"Atlas was permitted the opinion that he was at liberty, if he wished, to drop the Earth and creep away; but this opinion was all that he was permitted" - Franz Kafka
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Re: Medisin

Innlegg QIQrrr 25 Aug 2010, 16:39

University of Oxford, August 24, 2010: The extent to which vitamin D deficiency may increase susceptibility to a wide range of diseases is highlighted in a new study led by Oxford University. Scientists have mapped the points at which vitamin D interacts with our DNA – and identified over 200 genes directly influenced by vitamin D. The results are published in the journal Genome Research. It is estimated that 1 billion people worldwide do not have sufficient vitamin D. This deficiency is thought to be largely due to insufficient exposure to the sun and in some cases to poor diet. As well as being a well-known risk factor for rickets, there is a growing body of evidence that vitamin D deficiency also increases an individual's susceptibility to autoimmune conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes, as well as certain cancers and even dementia. The researchers have now shown the extent to which vitamin D interacts with our DNA - Gene study supports link between vitamin D deficiency and disease
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Re: Medisin

Innlegg QIQrrr 08 Sep 2010, 22:09

Caltech, September 6, 2010: Researchers at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have engineered a fundamentally new approach to killing cancer cells. The process—developed by Niles Pierce, associate professor of applied and computational mathematics and bioengineering at Caltech, and his colleagues—uses small RNA molecules that can be programmed to attack only specific cancer cells; then, by changing shape, those molecules cause the cancer cells to self-destruct - Caltech Scientists Create New Process to "Program" Cancer Cell Death

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"Atlas was permitted the opinion that he was at liberty, if he wished, to drop the Earth and creep away; but this opinion was all that he was permitted" - Franz Kafka
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Re: Medisin

Innlegg QIQrrr 15 Okt 2010, 04:58

USA Today, October 15, 2010: The Army says it has discovered a simple blood test that can diagnose mild traumatic brain damage or concussion, a hard-to-detect injury that can affect young athletes, infants with "shaken baby syndrome" and combat troops. "This is huge," said Gen. Peter Chiarelli, the Army vice chief of staff. Army Col. Dallas Hack, who has oversight of the research, says recent data show the blood test, which looks for unique proteins that spill into the blood stream from damaged brain cells, accurately diagnosing mild traumatic brain injury in 34 patients. Doctors can miss these injuries because the damage does not show up on imaging scans, and symptoms such as headaches or dizziness are ignored or downplayed by the victims. If the brain is not allowed time to recover and a second concussion occurs, permanent damage may result - Army finds simple blood test to identify mild brain trauma
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"Atlas was permitted the opinion that he was at liberty, if he wished, to drop the Earth and creep away; but this opinion was all that he was permitted" - Franz Kafka
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Re: Medisin

Innlegg QIQrrr 02 Nov 2010, 19:49

MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, November 2, 2010: Landmark research led by Dr Leo James from the LMB’s PNAC Division has discovered that antibodies can fight viruses from within infected cells. This finding transforms the previous scientific understanding of our immunity to viral diseases like the common cold, 'winter vomiting' and gastroenteritis. It also gives scientists a different set of rules that pave the way to the next generation of antiviral drugs - LMB scientists redefine how our immune system responds to viruses
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"Atlas was permitted the opinion that he was at liberty, if he wished, to drop the Earth and creep away; but this opinion was all that he was permitted" - Franz Kafka
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Re: Medisin

Innlegg QIQrrr 08 Nov 2010, 06:23

McMaster University, November 7, 2010: In an important breakthrough, scientists at McMaster University have discovered how to make human blood from adult human skin. The discovery, published in the prestigious science journal Nature today, could mean that in the foreseeable future people needing blood for surgery, cancer treatment or treatment of other blood conditions like anemia will be able to have blood created from a patch of their own skin to provide transfusions. Clinical trials could begin as soon as 2012 - McMaster scientists turn skin into blood
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"Atlas was permitted the opinion that he was at liberty, if he wished, to drop the Earth and creep away; but this opinion was all that he was permitted" - Franz Kafka
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Re: Medisin

Innlegg QIQrrr 12 Nov 2010, 11:56

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, November 10, 2010: In a pair of studies that has the potential to change the way researchers think about regenerative medicine, scientists have shown that a previously overlooked group of cells—the endothelial layer of blood vessels—is essential in helping adult stem cells multiply and revitalize damaged tissue. Being able to prompt these adult stem cells to proliferate and differentiate on command could have a profound impact on the field of regenerative medicine - Specialized Blood Vessels Jumpstart and Sustain Organ Regeneration
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"Atlas was permitted the opinion that he was at liberty, if he wished, to drop the Earth and creep away; but this opinion was all that he was permitted" - Franz Kafka
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Re: Medisin

Innlegg QIQrrr 18 Nov 2010, 21:21

MIT news, November 18, 2010: Cancer scientists believe nanoparticles could accurately target tumors, avoiding side effects. Several nanoparticle drugs are now in clinical trials, and many more are being developed in research labs. These particles hold great potential to improve the performance of existing cancer drugs, says physician and engineer Sangeeta Bhatia, the Wilson Professor of Health Sciences and Technology and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT. “Chemotherapy and radiation and surgery are what we have now, but nanotechnology is emerging as an approach that complements the existing armamentarium of clinical tools to have a significant impact,” she says - Direct delivery

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"Atlas was permitted the opinion that he was at liberty, if he wished, to drop the Earth and creep away; but this opinion was all that he was permitted" - Franz Kafka
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Re: Medisin

Innlegg QIQrrr 19 Nov 2010, 19:52

Stanford University, November 17, 2010: Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine, applying a state-of-the-art imaging system to brain-tissue samples from mice, have been able to quickly and accurately locate and count the myriad connections between nerve cells in unprecedented detail, as well as to capture and catalog those connections’ surprising variety. A typical healthy human brain contains about 200 billion nerve cells, or neurons, linked to one another via hundreds of trillions of tiny contacts called synapses. It is at these synapses that an electrical impulse traveling along one neuron is relayed to another, either enhancing or inhibiting the likelihood that the second nerve will fire an impulse of its own. One neuron may make as many as tens of thousands of synaptic contacts with other neurons, said Stephen Smith, PhD, professor of molecular and cellular physiology and senior author of a paper describing the study - New imaging method developed at Stanford reveals stunning details of brain connections


You are looking a visual reconstruction (from array-tomography data) of synapses in the mouse
somatosensory cortex, the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsive to sensation. Neurons
are depicted in green; multicolored dots represent separate synapses.
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"Atlas was permitted the opinion that he was at liberty, if he wished, to drop the Earth and creep away; but this opinion was all that he was permitted" - Franz Kafka
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Re: Medisin

Innlegg QIQrrr 29 Nov 2010, 07:24

Nature, November 28, 2010: Premature ageing can be reversed by reactivating an enzyme that protects the tips of chromosomes, a study in mice suggests. Mice engineered to lack the enzyme, called telomerase, become prematurely decrepit. But they bounced back to health when the enzyme was replaced. The finding, published online today in Nature, hints that some disorders characterized by early ageing could be treated by boosting telomerase activity. It also offers the possibility that normal human ageing could be slowed by reawakening the enzyme in cells where it has stopped working, says Ronald DePinho, a cancer geneticist at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts, who led the new study. "This has implications for thinking about telomerase as a serious anti-ageing intervention" - Telomerase reverses ageing process

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"Atlas was permitted the opinion that he was at liberty, if he wished, to drop the Earth and creep away; but this opinion was all that he was permitted" - Franz Kafka
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Re: Medisin

Innlegg QIQrrr 13 Des 2010, 16:36

Brown University, December 7, 2010: Here’s the vision: an elderly woman comes into the emergency room after a fall. She has broken her hip. The orthopaedic surgeon doesn’t come with metal plates or screws or shiny titanium ball joints. Instead, she pulls out a syringe filled with a new kind of liquid that will solidify in seconds and injects into the break. Over time, new bone tissue will take its place, encouraged by natural growth factors embedded in the synthetic molecules of the material. Although still early in its development, the liquid is real. In the Brown engineering lab of professor Thomas Webster it’s called TBL, for the novel DNA-like “twin-base linker” molecules that give it seemingly ideal properties - In the lab, engineer’s novel liquid provides a solid fix for broken bones

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Twin-based linker molecules take on a tube shape that not only provide a new
scaffold for bone growth, but also store growth factors and helpful drugs inside.
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"Atlas was permitted the opinion that he was at liberty, if he wished, to drop the Earth and creep away; but this opinion was all that he was permitted" - Franz Kafka
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