Hvem oppfant Internett?

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Hvem oppfant Internett?

Innlegg Vegard Martinsen 26 Jul 2012, 06:30

Obama: "The Internet didn't get invented on its own. Government research created the Internet so that all the companies could make money off the Internet."


http://online.wsj.com/article/SB1000087 ... 3008406518

Gordon Crovitz: Who Really Invented the Internet?
Contrary to legend, it wasn't the federal government, and the Internet had nothing to do with maintaining communications during a war.


A telling moment in the presidential race came recently when Barack Obama said: "If you've got a business, you didn't build that. Somebody else made that happen." He justified elevating bureaucrats over entrepreneurs by referring to bridges and roads, adding: "The Internet didn't get invented on its own. Government research created the Internet so that all companies could make money off the Internet."

It's an urban legend that the government launched the Internet. The myth is that the Pentagon created the Internet to keep its communications lines up even in a nuclear strike. The truth is a more interesting story about how innovation happens—and about how hard it is to build successful technology companies even once the government gets out of the way.

For many technologists, the idea of the Internet traces to Vannevar Bush, the presidential science adviser during World War II who oversaw the development of radar and the Manhattan Project. In a 1946 article in The Atlantic titled "As We May Think," Bush defined an ambitious peacetime goal for technologists: Build what he called a "memex" through which "wholly new forms of encyclopedias will appear, ready made with a mesh of associative trails running through them, ready to be dropped into the memex and there amplified."

That fired imaginations, and by the 1960s technologists were trying to connect separate physical communications networks into one global network—a "world-wide web." The federal government was involved, modestly, via the Pentagon's Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. Its goal was not maintaining communications during a nuclear attack, and it didn't build the Internet. Robert Taylor, who ran the ARPA program in the 1960s, sent an email to fellow technologists in 2004 setting the record straight: "The creation of the Arpanet was not motivated by considerations of war. The Arpanet was not an Internet. An Internet is a connection between two or more computer networks."

If the government didn't invent the Internet, who did? Vinton Cerf developed the TCP/IP protocol, the Internet's backbone, and Tim Berners-Lee gets credit for hyperlinks.

But full credit goes to the company where Mr. Taylor worked after leaving ARPA: Xerox. It was at the Xerox PARC labs in Silicon Valley in the 1970s that the Ethernet was developed to link different computer networks. Researchers there also developed the first personal computer (the Xerox Alto) and the graphical user interface that still drives computer usage today.

According to a book about Xerox PARC, "Dealers of Lightning" (by Michael Hiltzik), its top researchers realized they couldn't wait for the government to connect different networks, so would have to do it themselves. "We have a more immediate problem than they do," Robert Metcalfe told his colleague John Shoch in 1973. "We have more networks than they do." Mr. Shoch later recalled that ARPA staffers "were working under government funding and university contracts. They had contract administrators . . . and all that slow, lugubrious behavior to contend with."

So having created the Internet, why didn't Xerox become the biggest company in the world? The answer explains the disconnect between a government-led view of business and how innovation actually happens.

Executives at Xerox headquarters in Rochester, N.Y., were focused on selling copiers. From their standpoint, the Ethernet was important only so that people in an office could link computers to share a copier. Then, in 1979, Steve Jobs negotiated an agreement whereby Xerox's venture-capital division invested $1 million in Apple, with the requirement that Jobs get a full briefing on all the Xerox PARC innovations. "They just had no idea what they had," Jobs later said, after launching hugely profitable Apple computers using concepts developed by Xerox.

Xerox's copier business was lucrative for decades, but the company eventually had years of losses during the digital revolution. Xerox managers can console themselves that it's rare for a company to make the transition from one technology era to another.

As for the government's role, the Internet was fully privatized in 1995, when a remaining piece of the network run by the National Science Foundation was closed—just as the commercial Web began to boom. Blogger Brian Carnell wrote in 1999: "The Internet, in fact, reaffirms the basic free market critique of large government. Here for 30 years the government had an immensely useful protocol for transferring information, TCP/IP, but it languished. . . . In less than a decade, private concerns have taken that protocol and created one of the most important technological revolutions of the millennia."

It's important to understand the history of the Internet because it's too often wrongly cited to justify big government. It's also important to recognize that building great technology businesses requires both innovation and the skills to bring innovations to market. As the contrast between Xerox and Apple shows, few business leaders succeed in this challenge. Those who do—not the government—deserve the credit for making it happen.
Vegard Martinsen
 
Innlegg: 7866
Registrert: 07 Sep 2003, 12:07

Re: Hvem oppfant Internett?

Innlegg André Risnes 26 Jul 2012, 10:14

En ting som skiller Internettprotokollen (IP) fra de gamle kommunikasjonsprotokollene er at IP er pakkesvitsjet (bruker packet switching). Det vil si at hver eneste bit med data (pakke) transporteres fra sender til mottakker uavhengig av de andre pakkene. Før pakkesvitsjing ble oppfunnet var alle nettverk kretskoblet (brukte circuit switching). I et kretskoblet nettverk får en sesjon mellom sender og mottaker en fast bit av den tilgjengelige bandbredden så lenge sesjonen varer, og all data fra sender til mottaker sendes over en fast krets.

Pakkesvitsjing gir bedre utnyttelse av den totale bandbredden i systemet, gjør nettverket mer robust, og gir både operatører og brukere større kontroll over hvordan data sendes.

Pakkesvitsjing ble oppfunnet av Paul Baran ved RAND corporation rundt 1960.
A still more glorious dawn awaits: not a sunrise, but a galaxy rise - a morning filled with four hundred billion suns.
André Risnes
 
Innlegg: 258
Registrert: 27 Mai 2006, 12:33

Re: Hvem oppfant Internett?

Innlegg simon 26 Jul 2012, 13:30

Vinton Cerf developed the TCP/IP protocol,


jeg hadde en trivelig prat med Cerf i baren på SAS-hotellet for noen år siden. Veldig hyggelig og jprdnær (sic) fyr. Han var da VP i Google, og jobbet på en utvidet "IP"-protokoll som var brukbar mellom her og Mars orbit ! Da snakker vi om latency. Som han sa "they do posess a set of quite unique challenges"...
simon
 
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Registrert: 08 Sep 2003, 14:11
Bosted: Oslo

Re: Hvem oppfant Internett?

Innlegg Amund Farberg 26 Jul 2012, 17:25

Fullstendig avsporing:

Bilde

Orsak.
That government is best which governs least.
Amund Farberg
 
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Registrert: 03 Jan 2005, 23:34
Bosted: Gjøvik, Oppland

Re: Hvem oppfant Internett?

Innlegg Vegard Martinsen 29 Jul 2012, 05:58

En muligens korrigerende artikkel til den som åpnet tråden:

http://www.latimes.com/business/money/l ... 2169.story

So, who really did invent the Internet?

By Michael Hiltzik

Gordon Crovitz of the Wall Street Journal's editorial page reopens the ancient debate over who invented the Internet with a column Monday calling out the notion that it was the government as an "urban legend."

And while I'm gratified in a sense that he cites my book about Xerox PARC, "Dealers of Lightning," to support his case, it's my duty to point out that he's wrong. My book bolsters, not contradicts, the argument that the Internet had its roots in the ARPANet, a government project. So let's look at where Crovitz goes awry.

First, he quotes Robert Taylor, who funded the ARPANet as a top official at the Pentagon's Advanced Research Projects Agency, or ARPA, as stating, "The Arpanet was not an Internet. An Internet is a connection between two or more computer networks." (Taylor eventually moved to Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center, where he oversaw the invention of the personal computer, and continued promoting research into networking.)

But Crovitz confuses AN internet with THE Internet. Taylor was citing a technical definition of "internet" in his statement. But I know Bob Taylor, Bob Taylor is a friend of mine, and I think I can say without fear of contradiction that he fully endorses the idea as a point of personal pride that the government-funded ARPANet was very much the precursor of the Internet as we know it today. Nor was ARPA's support "modest," as Crovitz contends. It was full-throated and total. Bob Taylor was the single most important figure in the history of the Internet, and he holds that stature because of his government role.

Crovitz then points out that TCP/IP, the fundamental communications protocol of the Internet, was invented by Vinton Cerf (though he fails to mention Cerf's partner, Robert Kahn). He points out that Tim Berners-Lee "gets credit for hyperlinks."

Lots of problems here. Cerf and Kahn did develop TCP/IP--on a government contract! And Berners-Lee doesn't get credit for hyperlinks--that belongs to Doug Engelbart of Stanford Research Institute, who showed them off in a legendary 1968 demo you can see here. Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web--and he did so at CERN, a European government consortium.

Cerf, by the way, wrote in 2009 that the ARPANet, on which he worked, "led, ultimately, to the Internet."

As for Ethernet, which Bob Metcalfe and David Boggs invented at PARC (under Taylor's watchful eye), that's by no means a precursor of the Internet, as Crovitz contends. It was, and is, a protocol for interconnecting computers and linking them to outside networks--such as the Internet. And Metcalfe drew his inspiration for the technology from ALOHANet, an ARPA-funded project at the University of Hawaii.

So the bottom line is that the Internet as we know it was indeed born as a government project. In fact, without ARPA and Bob Taylor, it could not have come into existence. Private enterprise had no interest in something so visionary and complex, with questionable commercial opportunities. Indeed, the private corporation that then owned monopoly control over America's communications network, AT&T, fought tooth and nail against the ARPANet. Luckily for us, a far-sighted government agency prevailed.

It's true that the Internet took off after it was privatized in 1995. But to be privatized, first you have to be government-owned. It's another testament to people often demeaned as "government bureaucrats" that they saw that the moment had come to set their child free.
Vegard Martinsen
 
Innlegg: 7866
Registrert: 07 Sep 2003, 12:07


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