Sosiobiologiens far E O Wilson med ny kurs?

Diskusjon om psykologi, epistemologi og metafysikk (fri vilje, begrepsdannelse, o.l.).

Sosiobiologiens far E O Wilson med ny kurs?

Innlegg Vegard Martinsen 03 Okt 2012, 08:06

Biolog E O Wilson (f. 1929) er en av opphavsmennene til den materialistiske oppfatning at menneskelig atferd i stor grad er drevet av gener: et gen som forårsaker en bestemt atferd, og hvis noe gir en overlevelsesfordel blir genet overført. Wilson var en tidlig tilhenger av ideen om at vi har et gen for altruistisk adferd: noe som er skadelig for den enkelte kan være gunstig for den enkeltes familie. Med andre ord, hvis den enkelte er genetisk programmert til å ofre på vegne av sine slektninger (men ikke for fremmede), vil hans atferd har en overlevelsesfordel for den enkelte familie, vil dette sikre videreføring av en "pool" av gener de deler. Dette har ført enkelte viktige teoretikere (bla. Dawkins og Pinker) til å konkludere med at altruisme er genetisk kodet i mennesker, og at dette står for vår vilje til å engasjere seg i "uselviske" handlinger (for eksempel en mor gjør X slik at hennes barn kan ha Y, eller en soldat hopper på en håndgranat for å redde sine kamerater).

I et TV-program ble Wilson stilt følgende spørsmål: You're talking about progress in society as coming as a result of groups . . . working together. But on the other hand, real genius of individuals who are acting, actually selfishly, for their own benefit and aggrandizement, per se, are the ones who are really making the greatest progress in our society. Do you feel that the groups will overwhelm these individuals?

Wilson: No, not at all. In fact, I couldn't agree with you more . . . And I've been in on a lot of discoveries, you know, new developments, and so I have known people intimately that were doing it themselves. So I know how real innovation takes place, and it's not “groupthink.” It is not going to come from taking a bunch of real bright people and putting them in one of these “think tanks” and asking them to sit together in front of a blackboard and think together and produce great ideas. That's not the way it works. It works when one mind—usually rebellious, in a way; usually ambitious; enterprising—decides to do something new, preferably where no one has tried before, and goes for it. And what you find then, time and again, is an individual like that, a real innovator. And they're in every society, they're in every larger group, you have to find who they are. In high school, for example, they'll be the “nerd,” the kid “least likely to succeed,” who's on no team but who's always doodling with something, or crazy about the chemistry lab, or something like this. And that one person then pursues it; it requires a spirit of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship if anything is more important than high IQ. That person then gathers people, collaborators: one here who can do the mathematical model at a high level; another one there that can do the natural products, chemistry; another there who knows how to design the right computer programs to push the thing forward. And before long you have a group. But that's not the group that innovated. [They didn't] have the dream—that [came from] one person. You're right. And that's not going to disappear at all.

(Edward O. Wilson, discussing his book “The Social Conquest of Earth” at the Free Library of Philadelphia on 4/24/12, broadcast on C-SPAN2's Book TV.)
Vegard Martinsen
 
Innlegg: 7865
Registrert: 07 Sep 2003, 12:07

Re: Sosiobiologiens far E O Wilson med ny kurs?

Innlegg carl 03 Okt 2012, 20:36

Interessant! Annen relevant lesning er "The Wisdom of Crowds" av James Surowiecki.
carl
 
Innlegg: 109
Registrert: 02 Des 2010, 16:02


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