Kina: The Rise of the Dragon

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Kina: The Rise of the Dragon

Innlegg QIQrrr 09 Jul 2009, 14:02

US slips, China soars in Fortune company rankings - 09.07.09

The number of US companies featured in a emminent business magazine's annual list of the world's top 500 global companies fell to its lowest level ever, Fortune magazine has said, while more Chinese firms appeared than ever before.
Signaling the effects of the devastating financial crisis on the US economy, a non-US firm topped the list for the first time in over a decade, with Anglo-Dutch energy giant Royal Dutch Shell coming in first.

The firm brought in 15 billion dollars (11 billion euros) more in sales than second place oil rival Exxon Mobil of the United States.

China, Asia's ever-soaring powerhouse economy, saw its fortunes rise across the board with a Chinese firm -- oil giant Sinopec -- appearing in the top 10 for the first time, the magazine reported Wednesday.

Sinopec, also known as China Petroleum & Chemical Corp, supplies 80 some percent of China's fuel.

Overall, China had an unprecedented total of 37 companies featured on the list, with nine new entries and the others climbing in the rankings.

The business publication meanwhile said US-based Wal-Mart Stores slid from last year's top spot to third, with revenues of over 405 billion dollars.

But the number of US firms in the top 500 fell to 140, the lowest since Fortune began the list 1995.

Japan was in second with 68 firms, while France and Germany narrowly edged out China with 40 and 39 firms respectively.

In full, number one Shell had 458 billion dollars in revenue, and Exxon Mobil had 442.8 billions in revenue.

In fourth place came British oil giant BP (367 billion dollars), followed by US oil firm Chevron (263 billion); French oil firm Total (234.6 billion); US oil firm ConocoPhillips (230.7 billion); Dutch insurance conglomerate ING Group (226.5 billion), Sinopec (207.8 billion) and Japan's Toyota Motor (204 billion).

Seven of the top ten were oil firms and only one was an automobile company.

Of the US firms to disappear from the list entirely were household names slammed by the global economic crisis -- among them AIG, Freddie Mac and Lehman Brothers, while the rising US firms were Google, Amazon and Nike.

In announcing the rankings, Fortune noted a US National Intelligence Council report called Global Trends 2025 that said if the current trends continue "by 2025 China will have the world's second largest economy."

According to a 2008 study by the US research organization Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, China's economy will overtake that of the United States by 2035 and be twice its size by midcentury.

The Fortune ranking is based only on revenues, while other rankings use profits or other factors.

Among the biggest losers was the Detroit, Michigan auto stalwart General Motors -- currently undergoing mammoth bankruptcy proceedings after reporting a net loss of more than 30 billion dollars in 2008.

The 19th century was the century of the UK, the 20th century was the century of the US, the 21 st century is going to be the century of China - Jim Rogers
Børge Svanstrøm Amundsen

"Atlas was permitted the opinion that he was at liberty, if he wished, to drop the Earth and creep away; but this opinion was all that he was permitted" - Franz Kafka
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Re: Kina: The Rise of the Dragon

Innlegg QIQrrr 28 Jul 2009, 19:04

China calls the shots:

US, China have pointed questions in private

Jul 28, 7:36 AM (ET)


WASHINGTON (AP) - The United States and China are striking a conciliatory tone in their public comments during economic talks, although that hasn't stopped China from posing some pointed questions behind closed doors about such issues as America's soaring budget deficit.

The Obama administration has questions it wants answered as well in such areas as China's long reliance on massive trade surpluses with the United States to bolster its domestic economy.

Both sides are expected to wrap up two days of high-level talks Tuesday with a joint communique that will lay out a work plan that both sides will tackle in upcoming meetings.

Officials from both nations played down the prospects for any breakthroughs this week on the major issues that separate the two nations, including America's massive trade deficit with China. Critics have blamed the trade deficit over the years for the loss of millions of U.S. manufacturing jobs.

President Barack Obama opened Monday's discussions by declaring that the United States sought a new era of "cooperation, not confrontation" with China and that management of the U.S.-China relationship would be a major factor in defining the history of the 21st century.

Obama dispatched his top economic officials - Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner, National Economic Council Director Lawrence Summers, White House budget director Peter Orszag and Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke - to try to reassure China that the U.S. will not let deficits or inflation jeopardize the value of Chinese investments.

U.S. briefers said the president's team told the Chinese that the United States was committed to making sure the economic and monetary stimulus being used to fight the recession did not fuel inflation.

U.S. officials told reporters that the U.S. side stressed to the Chinese that the United States has a plan to bring the deficit down once the economic crisis has been resolved. They said Bernanke discussed the Fed's exit strategy from the central bank's current period of extraordinary monetary easing, emphasizing that the Fed was being careful to guard against future inflation.

The Chinese, who have the largest foreign holdings of U.S. Treasury debt at $801.5 billion, have been expressing worries that soaring deficits could spark inflation or a sudden drop in the value of the dollar, thus jeopardizing their investments. Chinese officials said those concerns were raised during Monday's talks.

"We sincerely hope the U.S. fiscal deficit will be reduced, year after year," Assistant Finance Minister Zhu Guangyao told reporters after the Monday talks had ended.

"The Chinese government is a responsible government and first and foremost our responsibility is the Chinese people, so of course we are concerned about the security of the Chinese assets," Zhu said, speaking through an interpreter.

The discussions on America's deficits and China's role in financing them highlighted the growing economic importance of China, now the world's third largest economy.

The discussions in Washington represent the continuation of talks begun by the Bush administration. While the initial talks focused on economic issues, Obama wanted the agenda expanded to include foreign policy issues such as America's drive to get China's support for more international pressure to curb North Korea's nuclear ambitions.

Geithner and Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton were leading the U.S. team. The Chinese delegation was led by Chinese State Councilor Dai Bingguo and Vice Premier Wang Qishan.

David Loevinger, Treasury's senior coordinator for China affairs, said Orszag and Summers both stressed the commitment of the administration to attacking the U.S. deficits.

"There were serious questions about what the economic outlook is and ... our plans for withdrawing stimulus," Loevinger told reporters.

Geithner traveled to Beijing last month to assure Chinese officials that federal budget deficits, which have ballooned because of government efforts to deal with the recession and stabilize the financial system, would be reined in once those crises have passed.

Many private economists have said the Chinese are right to worry about a U.S. budget deficit that is projected to hit $1.85 trillion this year, four times the previous record.
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"Atlas was permitted the opinion that he was at liberty, if he wished, to drop the Earth and creep away; but this opinion was all that he was permitted" - Franz Kafka
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Re: Kina: The Rise of the Dragon

Innlegg QIQrrr 05 Aug 2009, 02:32

China's Gains in Manufacturing Stir Friction Across the Pacific

Wall Street Journal, AUGUST 4, 2009

China is on its way to surpassing the U.S. as the world's largest manufacturer far sooner than expected. The question is, does that matter? In terms of actual size, the answer is, no. But if size is a proxy for relative health of each nation's sector, the answer is yes.

Anyone who walks the aisles of a U.S. retailer might think China already is the world's largest manufacturer. But, in fact, the U.S. retains that distinction by a wide margin. In 2007, the latest year for which data are available, the U.S. accounted for 20% of global manufacturing; China was 12%.

The gap, though, is closing rapidly. According to IHS/Global Insight, an economic-forecasting firm in Lexington, Mass., China will produce more in terms of real value-added by 2015. Using value-added as a measure avoids the problem of double-counting by tallying the value created at each step of an extended production process.

As recently as two years ago, Global Insight's estimate was that China would surpass the U.S. as the world's top manufacturer by 2020. Last year, it pulled the date forward to 2016 or 2017.

"The recent deep recession in U.S. manufacturing does mean that China's catch-up is occurring a few years earlier than would have been the case if there had been no recession," says Nariman Behravesh, the group's chief economist.

U.S. manufacturing is shrinking, shedding jobs and, in the wake of this deep recession, producing and exporting far fewer goods, while China's factories keep expanding. If manufacturers on both sides of the Pacific were thriving, there would be little reason to butt heads. But given the massive trade gap between the two nations and uncertainty in the U.S. over when and to what degree manufacturing will recover, China's ascent has become a point of growing friction.

Chinese manufacturing activity continued to tick up in July from the previous month, data from the China Federation of Logistics and Purchasing showed Saturday. The Purchasing Managers Index edged up to 53.3 in July, from 53.2 in June and 53.1 in May.

A separate CLSA China Purchasing Managers Index rose to a 12-month high of 52.8 in July from 51.8 in June, CLSA Asia-Pacific Markets said Monday. July was the fourth consecutive month the CLSA PMI was above 50 after hovering below the key level for eight months.

Many economists argue that the shrinking of U.S. manufacturing -- both in terms of jobs and share of gross domestic product -- is a normal economic evolution that started long before China emerged as a manufacturing powerhouse. From their point of view, the shrinking would happen regardless and is actually a sign of health that the sector doesn't need to be big to be productive and is shedding low-skill jobs and creating select higher-skill ones.

Global Insight's Mr. Behravesh is one of those who views China's rise as normal, even healthy. "In the natural course, countries go from agriculture to manufacturing to services," he says. "To subsidize manufacturing pushes the U.S. backwards down that curve."

But another school of thought -- one known by the somewhat backhanded label of "manufacturing fundamentalists" -- contends the U.S. decline isn't natural and must be reversed to retain America's economic power. From their perspective, that necessitates fighting Chinese policies that fuel low-cost exports, swamping a variety of industries from textiles to tires.

"The notion that we can be a nonmanufacturing society is folly," says Peter Morici, an economist at the University of Maryland. "It's pseudo-science that gives rise to the collapse of civilizations."

The Obama administration is stepping carefully through this minefield. At a two-day conference last week, the first meeting of a new forum designed to foster closer cooperation between the two countries, China's tightly managed currency policy was barely discussed even though it is a hot-button issue for many U.S.-based producers and organized labor. They argue that China undervalues its currency to gain a competitive advantage for its exports, which sell at a lower price in the U.S.

The U.S. Business and Industry Council, which represents U.S.-based manufacturers, accused the Obama administration of "panda-hugging." The administration earlier this year softened its stance on the issue when it declined to label China a currency manipulator.

John Engler, president of the National Association of Manufacturers, says he doesn't expect China to surpass the U.S. before 2020. "It may or may not continue to grow so rapidly," he says. "The importance of the China challenge to the U.S. depends on how we respond to it," such as implementing tax and investment policies that encourage domestic producers to expand.

Mr. Engler's group faces a delicate issue of its own regarding China: Many of its powerful members produce in China and are eager to avoid controversy on trade issues, while the group's large roster of smaller members are often outspoken critics of China.

Even in its weakened state, manufacturing remains a surprisingly large part of the U.S. economy. The sector generates more than 13% of the nation's GDP, making it a bigger contributor to the economy than retail trade, finance or the health-care industry. In China, manufacturing represents 34% of GDP.

Still, the concern remains that U.S. manufacturers now being hit by the economic downturn will never recover. J.B. Brown, president of Bremen Castings Inc., a family-owned foundry in Bremen, Ind., says the downturn has halted what had been a hopeful trend that emerged last year of work returning to the U.S. from China.

"I see a lot of people starting to look at going overseas again," he says, in part because costs are rising in the U.S. even in the depth of this recession. He notes, for instance, that Bremen's electricity rates jumped 17% this year -- and the company has been warned they could increase even more next year. Foundries like Bremen use large amounts of electricity to heat metal.

En fersk undersøkelse utført av Duke University bekrefter uttalelsene fra Brown:

    Washington (AFP) Aug 3, 2009: The number of US companies with a corporate offshoring strategy in place more than doubled in the past three years, according to the fifth annual report on offshoring trends, published by Duke University in collaboration with the Conference Board. In the 2007-2008 survey, the financial services industry has the highest proportion of companies adopting corporate-wide offshoring strategies. In 2004, offshoring strategies were largely focused on information technology and help desk support and aimed at reducing costs. Now, members of senior management are expressing a growing interest in existing offshoring initiatives and future opportunities in a variety of areas, including engineering, software development, marketing and sales and procurement - Offshoring by US Companies Surges
Børge Svanstrøm Amundsen

"Atlas was permitted the opinion that he was at liberty, if he wished, to drop the Earth and creep away; but this opinion was all that he was permitted" - Franz Kafka
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Re: Kina: The Rise of the Dragon

Innlegg QIQrrr 26 Aug 2009, 23:02

Exports narrowly edge past Germany's for first time

ChinaDaily, 2009-08-26

China's rise as the world largest exporter, though significant, does not mean Chinese exports will be of as high a quality as Germany's goods, experts said. The Chinese government should seriously consider ways to improve the quality of goods for export and create more value-added products to strengthen its competitiveness, they said.

For the first time, China took the lead as the world's export champion, surpassing Germany by a minimal amount in the first half of the year.

A report released Tuesday by the World Trade Organization (WTO) shows that from January to June, China exported goods worth $521.7 billion. Germany, which has been the world's biggest exporter since 2003, exported goods worth $521.6 billion.

Despite the fact that Chinese exports have declined for nine months, "China's economic power is still rising, and excluding the exchange rate factor, China is expected to surpass Japan as the second-largest economy this year," said Cai Haitao, inspector of the Department of Policy Research under the Ministry of Commerce.

In late July, the WTO predicted China would pass Germany as the largest exporter in 2009.

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development also said the ratio of China's foreign trade to global trade will increase from the current 8.7 percent to 10 percent when the global economy recovers.

"The figure is not surprising, thanks to the nation's growing economic strength. And the possibility is high that the momentum will continue," said Li Daokui, senior Chinese economist and director of the Economic and Management Institute of Tsinghua University.

But WTO chief economist Patrick Low said it was impossible to say which of the two nations would come out on top this year or in 2010.

"It's a very tight race," Reuters quoted Low as saying Tuesday.

"Obviously, the result will depend not only on what happens to export volumes, but what happens to exchange rates."

Last Tuesday, Germany's DIHK export association was quoted by AFP as saying that global demand for high-worth and high-priced products made in Germany had shrunk sharply during the economic crisis.

"Germany's trading partners are going more for cheaper products now," it said.

For China, the problem is still the quality and mix of exports.

"The Chinese economy has not benefited much from the exports. The biggest concern is the quality of exports," said Li.

Since late last year, trade protectionism against China has kept rising.

The nation has become a major target of trade remedy measures launched by developed nations, including the US and Europe, and developing nations, represented by India and Turkey.

From last October to this June, investigations concerning trade remedy measures against China were valued at $9.8 billion, rocketing up by 113 percent compared with the first three quarters of 2008.

"The question is, why it was all against China, not Germany?" said Li.

Germany has long enjoyed a good reputation for its high-tech and quality products. "Chinese exporters need to develop more value-added goods," said Li.

And Chinese exporters need to shift their focus to emerging markets, instead of the US and Europe, said Cai.

China's exports to the Middle East, East Europe, Africa and Latin America, respectively, accounted for 9.2, 3.7, 10.4 and 6.9 percent of their markets. But comparatively, the figure was 17 percent to 22 percent for the US and Europe.

The share of China's exports in the major 12 trade partners rose rapidly amid the economic recession.

According to the Customs, the market share climbed from 16.2 percent during the first quarter to 19.3 percent in early 2008. The 12 trade partners imported 75 percent of Chinese goods.

Although the global economy seems to have bottomed out, there is no sign that it will recover soon, which will force Chinese exporters to struggle for months.

"The global economy will experience low-speed growth for a long period of time," said Cai.


Se også:

    ChinaDaily, 2009-08-25: BEIJING: China's top legislature began Tuesday deliberating a draft resolution on climate change, which aims to accelerate efforts to tackle the challenge of global warming. The draft, submitted to the 10th session of the Standing Committee of the 11th National People's Congress (NPC), says China "as a developing country" will firmly "maintain the right to development," and opposes "any form of trade protectionism disguised as tackling climate change." It says developed nations should "take the lead in quantifying their reductions of emissions" and honor their commitments to "support developing countries with funds and technology transfers" - Legislators to deliberate draft on climate change
Børge Svanstrøm Amundsen

"Atlas was permitted the opinion that he was at liberty, if he wished, to drop the Earth and creep away; but this opinion was all that he was permitted" - Franz Kafka
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Re: Kina: The Rise of the Dragon

Innlegg QIQrrr 27 Aug 2009, 15:31

China urges U.S. to halt surveillance near its shores

Reuters, Aug 27, 2009

BEIJING (Reuters) - China called on the United States to reduce and eventually halt air and sea military surveillance close to its shores after a series of territorial disputes this year.

The request was made during a special session on maritime safety between the two countries' militaries on Wednesday and Thursday, Xinhua news agency said on Thursday, citing China's Defense Ministry.

Five times this year, Chinese vessels have confronted U.S. surveillance ships in Asian waters, the U.S. Defense Department said in May. China said the U.S. vessels had intruded its territory. There has since been a sixth incident.

"China believes the constant U.S. military air and sea surveillance and survey operations in China's exclusive economic zone had led to military confrontations between the two sides," the ministry said.

"The way to resolve China-U.S. maritime incidents is for the U.S. to change its surveillance and survey operations policies against China, decrease and eventually stop such operations."

Susan Stevenson, spokeswoman at the U.S. Embassy in Beijing, confirmed the request.

"Our position has not changed," Stevenson said, citing a U.S. Undersecretary of Defense Michele Flournoy statement during a June visit to China that the U.S. "exercises its freedom of navigation while putting emphasis on taking care to avoid any unwanted incidents."

The United States maintains on principle that waters beyond 12 miles offshore are open to all shipping, while China holds that the U.S. should not trespass within its 200-mile exclusive economic zone.

In March, five Chinese vessels approached the USNS Impeccable in the South China Sea about 75 miles from Hainan Island in March, after hassling that ship, as well as the ocean surveillance ship Victorious in the Yellow Sea, in previous days.

In May, two Chinese fishing vessels confronted the Victorious again.

In June, a Chinese submarine collided with an underground sonar array being towed by the destroyer USS John McCain, near Subic Bay in the Philippines.

The most serious recent confrontation between China and the U.S. was in 2001, when a U.S. naval surveillance aircraft flying about 70 miles off Hainan collided with a Chinese fighter and was forced to land on Hainan Island.
Børge Svanstrøm Amundsen

"Atlas was permitted the opinion that he was at liberty, if he wished, to drop the Earth and creep away; but this opinion was all that he was permitted" - Franz Kafka
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Re: Kina: The Rise of the Dragon

Innlegg QIQrrr 22 Sep 2009, 14:38

Military playing catch-up in modernization

Global Times, September 22, 2009

Some of China's most advanced weaponry is already being utilized by soldiers – a sign of the country's stepped-up efforts to modernize its military by 2050, according to the defense minister.

Military analysts say China is striving to create a weapon system that compares to those of the United States, Russia and European nations.

China has drawn up a three-step development strategy, starting with laying "a solid foundation by 2010" for the upgrades, Minister of National Defense Liang Guanglie told the Xinhua News Agency for a story yesterday.

According to the blueprint, the army will give priority to nationwide mobility instead of regional defense, the navy will be armed with strong coastal defense capabilities, as well as means of warfare farther out to sea, the air force will be updated from mere territorial air defense to the combination of offense and defense, and the missile force will become an effective strategic force capable of both conventional and nuclear launches.

Liang disclosed that the Chinese military has been armed with a series of sophisticated weapons, including a third-generation main battle tank, the country's indigenous third-generation fighter aircraft J-10; early warning aircraft; cruise missiles; destroyers and strategic nuclear missiles.

"Our capabilities in waging defensive combat under modern conditions have taken a quantum leap," Liang was quoted as saying.

"It could be said that China has basically all the kinds of equipment possessed by Western countries, much of which reaches or approaches advanced world standards.

"This is a very remarkable achievement which not only reflects the level of modernisation of our army, but also tremendous changes in national science and technology strength."

Many of the specifics are classified, but military fans speculated that China is adding Type 99G and the Kongjing-2000 (KJ-2000) to its arsenal.

The Type 99G is said to provide the Chinese army with a tank similar to the Leopard 2 and M1A1 tanks of Western countries. It will be equipped with a 125mm smoothbore cannon with autoloader.

The latest early warning aircraft in China is the KJ-2000, which is comprised of domestically designed electronics and radar installed on a modified Ilyushin IL-76 airframe, sources said.

China has to continue with its development of increasingly sophisticated weapons to provide solid material and technological support to the army's modernization drive, Liang said.

His words came just days before China's biggest military parade in a decade in Beijing, which will showcase much of the advance weaponry October 1 in celebration of the nation's 60th anniversary.

Chinese analysts did not hesitate to applaud the development of China's weapons system, though some pointed out that Western powers might not be happy to see that happen.

"A Chinese weaponry system, which is practical, cheap and suitable for defense on home soil, will eventually come into being," Li Daguang, a senior military expert at the PLA University of National Defense, told the Global Times.

"The international environment happens to be unhelpful for China's weapon development," he said, citing weapons embargos against China by Euroupean Union and the US.

He also criticized foreign media for its reporting on China's military progress.

"They are quick to make noise whenever China reports progress in its weaponry development," he said. "They exaggerate and politicize the issue."

Last week, China's Ministry of National Defense reiterated that the country's military development is "always a positive factor for both regional and global peace and stability," in response to Washington's renewed comments that China's increasingly advanced weaponry could undermine US military power in the Pacific.

"Liang's words reflect the rapid development of China's military strength, especially in the last decade," said Yang Chengjun, a senior military strategist of missile studies. "But compared with developed countries, China still has a long way to go to defend and expand national interests efficiently."

Brain drain:

    "I applied for jobs all over the US. There just weren't any," said Reasbeck, who speaks no Chinese but volunteered at the 2008 Beijing Olympics. In China, she said: "The jobs are so easy to find. And there are so many." Young foreigners like Reasbeck are coming to China to look for work in its unfamiliar but less bleak economy, driven by the worst job markets in decades in the United States, Europe and some Asian countries. Many do basic work such as teaching English, a service in demand from Chinese businesspeople and students. But a growing number are arriving with skills in computers, finance and other fields. "China is really the land of opportunity now, compared to their home countries," said Chris Watkins, manager for China and Hong Kong of MRI China Group, a headhunting firm. "This includes college graduates as well as maybe more established businesspeople, entrepreneurs and executives from companies around the world." Watkins said the number of resumes his company receives from abroad has tripled over the past 18 months - China hope for overseas jobless
Børge Svanstrøm Amundsen

"Atlas was permitted the opinion that he was at liberty, if he wished, to drop the Earth and creep away; but this opinion was all that he was permitted" - Franz Kafka
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Re: Kina: The Rise of the Dragon

Innlegg QIQrrr 01 Okt 2009, 17:06

Military parade marks anniversary

China Daily, 2009-10-01

PLA Guard of Honor heralds military review

China's military parade reached a climax as a formation of Guard of Honor of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) three services marched past Tian'anmen in the center of Beijing.

The tall and handsome soldiers, dressed in green, white and blue ceremonial PLA uniforms, marched past Tian'anmen in swift and impeccable goosesteps, leaving spectators intoxicated in admiration.

The PLA Guard of Honor, representing the Army, Navy and Air Force, escorted the PLA flag. Following the Guard of Honor are 55 phalanxes composed of China's armed forces, including 13 on feet, 30 by vehicles and 12 flying squads.

The PLA flag is red with a golden star in the upper hoist. Next to the star are two Chinese characters "Ba Yi", the Chinese numerals for "8" and "1", which stand for "August 1", to commemorate the establishment of the Communist-led army in 1927.

On August 1, 1927, the Communist Party of China (CPC) fired the first shot of combating Kuomintang (KMT) in Nanchang, capital of Jiangxi Province, after it underwent sanguinary purges.

The Nanchang Uprising was seen as CPC's initial bid to establish the people's army. August 1 has been used as the major symbol of the PLA flag and army emblem since 1949. The date is also China's Army Day.

All the personnel phalanxes will march past Tian'anmen in goosesteps. In between the two ornamental pillars standing on each side of the Tian'anmen Rostrum, the soldiers will have to take exactly 128 goosesteps in 96 meters.

Each step should be exactly 0.75 meters, according to organizers of the parade.

Over the past months, participating servicemen and women had trained for nearly 12 hours a day, even in summer when temperatures reached 40 Celsius.

The PLA Guard of Honor is primarily responsible for ceremony and protocol missions. Since it was established in 1952, the PLA Guard of Honor has successfully accomplished over 3,000 honor and ceremony missions.

Naval forces

Sailors and marines in the National Day parade Thursday impressed the audience on Tian'anmen Square and nationwide with the country's growing ability to guard its coast and territorial waters.

Formations of cadets, sailors and marines represented the progress the country had made in building a multi-dimensional naval defense capable of diversified missions.

Aged 18 on average, the sailors from the Navy Submarine Academy formed the youngest military formation in the parade.

When the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Navy established a submarine unit in 1954, the only two submarines it had were given by the Soviet Union.

Today the country's submarine fleet is made up of both conventionally-powered and nuclear submarines with their combat capabilities being substantially upgraded.

In a grand offshore fleet review in April to mark the PLA Navy's 60th anniversary, two homebred nuclear submarines, the Long March 6 and the Long March 3, made their maiden show. Also on show were two conventionally-powered ones, the Great Wall 218 and the Great Wall 177.

The cadets' phalanx was made up of naval cadets from the Dalian Naval Surface Warship Academy. Founded in November 1949, the academy is regarded as the cradle of the country' s navy officers.

About 40,000 officers have graduated from the academy over the past 60 years, of whom 180 have become admirals and 1,200 become captains of warships. The marine corps, in the third naval formation in the parade, is one of the youngest services in the Navy.

Founded in 1979, the corps made its debut in the National Day parade in 1999, signaling the Navy's breakthrough in land warfare.

Armed police commando

The Snow Leopard Commando unit, the crack force of the People's Armed Police Force (PAPF), made their debut Thursday onboard 08 wheeled armored vehicles, the only kind in Thursday's parade covered with urban camouflage.

The Chinese SWAT, officially named the Special Brigade of the PAPF Beijing Corps, was established in 2002 and named by the Central Military Commission (CMC), is a crack emergency force to handle emergency and terrorist threats and maintain stability.

The special brigade carried out security work during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. It also took part in several national anti-terrorism drills and the 2007 Sino-Russian anti-terrorism exercise.

The brigade has been praised for dealing with emergencies, fighting violent crimes and safeguarding important events.

Largest PLA howitzers

The PLA rolled out battalions of its new artillery units to join tanks and SWAT teams in a grand military parade to celebrate the 60th founding anniversary of the People's Republic of China in the heart of Beijing.

The PLA's Type 05 tracked self-propelled gun-howitzers thundered past the audience on and at both side of the Tian'anmen Rostrum amid applause studded with exclamations.

Paratroopers bear PLA's new automatic rifles

The PLA's airborne corps soldiers in their featured sky gray camouflage uniforms march during a massive parade in Beijing to celebrate the 60th founding anniversary of New China. [Xinhua]

Holding newly equipped Type 03 automatic rifles, the PLA's airborne corps soldiers in their featured sky gray camouflage uniforms arrived.

The Type 03 automatic rifle is the latest member of the Chinese People's Liberation Army's Type 95 rifle series which adopt 5.8-mm caliber combining the advantages of both Russian-made AK-74 and U.S.-made M-16 small-caliber rifles.

The paratroopers on the parade also become the first official users of the new firearm as the rifle's unique foldable gunstocks can be seen in front of the soldier's chest.

Type 03 automatic rifle was initiated as a backup plan just after the Type 95 rifle, which has been widely adopted to replace the Type 81 rifles, became the PLA's standard equipment.

"The Type 95 rifle has a world popular Bullpup design, but many troops complained that their soldiers were not accustomed to the fashionable rifles without gunstocks," said Ma Shizeng, a retired light firearm expert.

The equipment of Type 95 series including Type 03 rifle among most of the PLA's troops to replace Type 81 series also embodies that the PLA's individual weapon has been upgraded from imitations of Russian models to independent designing, said Ma.

Different from the caliber of both Russian and NATO rifles, the PLA's own rifle criterion might be a typical footnote of the defensive nature of China's military development, said Duo Yingxian, an academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering and chief designer of Type 95 rifle series.

"If invading enemies captured the PLA's rifles in China, they could not fire them with foreign bullets," Duo said.

Bearing glorious battle histories in the Korean War and engagement in disaster relief as well as joint military exercises with foreign armies, the paratroopers first appeared on the National Day parade in 1954.

During the PLA's desperate rescue efforts two days after the deadly Wenchuan earthquake last May, 15 paratroopers from this airborne corps managed a high-altitude jump at about 5,000 kilometers above sea level to become the first rescuers arrived near the epicenter.

Army special forces debut

The special operations forces of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) made their first public appearance Thursday in the National Day military parade on Tian'anmen Square.

The soldiers, in brown camouflage uniforms, were holding silenced submachine guns.

The phalanx was from the special operations brigade of the Beijing Military Area Command, which shoulders responsibility of anti-terrorism and handling other emergencies.

The PLA special operations forces, established in the early 1990s, have evolved from a traditional reconnaissance unit. They are equipped with silenced rifles and bayonets, as well as high-tech facilities such as unmanned aircraft, global positioning and battlefield information processing systems.

Before the special forces marched cadets from the Shijiazhuang Mechanized Infantry Academy and soldiers from the "Red Army's First Division."

Intercontinental ballistic missiles

The National Day military parade culminated in the final staging of giant nuclear-capable intercontinental ballistic missiles Thursday.

The camouflaged nuclear weapon rode on 18 launch vehicles. Each vehicles had 20 wheels, carrying the "remarkable symbol" of China's defense muscle.

Aircraft bearing live ammunition present largest air force show

Right on time, the first aircraft of National Day air display, Kongjing-2000 AEWC aircraft, roared down from skyline to the east of Tian'anmen Square where the emissions from tanks and missile-carrying trucks had not dispersed.

Featured with the distinctive giant radome on its back, a Kongjing-2000 was escorted by eight J-7 fighters from the PLA's Bayi (August 1) Aerobatics Team, leaving colorful smoke trails in the sky over Tian'anmen Square.

Some spectators with sharp eyesight shouted with surprise on the east reviewing stands of Tian'anmen Rostrum when they found six J-11 fighters following two AEWC aircraft mounted with air-to-air missiles under their wings.

The Air Force's vice commander Zhao Zhongxin told Xinhua earlier that all the combatant aircraft of the air fleet in the parade were loaded with live weapons.

"It is the second time for us to equip the aircraft with live ammunition during air display on National Day parade," said Lt.-Gen. Zhao who is also the air display's chief director.

On the inaugural parade when late Chairman Mao Zedong declared the founding of the People's Republic of China, the PLA's four US-made P-51 WWII fighters captured from the Kuomintang air force were fully loaded with ammos to their machine guns when they flew over the crowd.

"I suggested then general director of the parade Marshal Nie Rongzhen that at least four of the fighters on the parade must bear live ammunition to deal with possible dog fight with enemy planes," Fang Huai, a retired air force general, recalled.

The inaugural parade on October 1, 1949, was held amid occasional harassment by the Kuomintang military aircraft since the Chinese mainland was not completely liberated by the Communist Party of China.

However, missiles and bombs now are not expected to be actually used, they just showcase China's capability of air defense weaponry. Pilots on today's aerial display will not allow a single fire of their shinning missiles to ensure security of the people on the ground.

"We have disarmed all the warheads of the missiles mounted to the aircraft and reinforced all the hardpoints to prevent accidental fall-off of the missiles," said Lt.-Gen. Zhao Zhongxin.

"This is the largest air display among all 14 military parades on National Day," Zhao said. "Sixty years ago we only had 17 captured aircraft, today we showcase 151, all domestically made."

The jets that the Air Force's Bayi Aerobatics Team were using for the air display are the PLA's second-generation fighter J-7GB. It was the final show of the jets as the aerobatics team will be equipped with the third-generation J-10 fighters after the National Day parade, said Lou Guoqiang, captain of the aerobatic team.

Logistical equipment phalanx

The PLA showcased its logistical support capability in a grand military parade to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China Thursday morning.

The first-ever logistical equipment phalanx appearing in the parade highlighted the PLA's state-of-the-art vehicles for field operations, including those for surgical operation, staple food cooking, water purification, gas filling and platforms for heavy-duty equipment.

The formation made by an armored division of the Beijing Military Command represents the PLA's second-generation logistical equipment.

Under the Outline for Building a Modern Logistics System promulgated by the Central Military Commission in December 2007, the PLA has aimed to acquire the full capability of providing logistic support to emergency operations by 2010 and to complete the task of building a modernized logistical system by 2020.

A primary task for the present and in the near future, says the outline, is to make sure that the PLA is capable of winning a local war of the information age, to advance the integration of tri-service logistical support, to deepen reforms in joint logistics and to speed up the outsourcing process.

In April 2007 the Jinan Military Command formally adopted the joint logistics system based on the integration of tri-service logistical support.

In an effort to facilitate the outsourcing process, the PLA has started to out-source the commercial and housing services of combat units stationed in large and medium-sized cities, general-purpose materials storage, capital construction, logistical equipment production and logistical technical services.

It also enlarged the scope of centralized procurement, increased the proportion of procurement through bidding, and extended centralized procurement to non-combat units so as to improve capital use efficiency.

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Re: Kina: The Rise of the Dragon

Innlegg QIQrrr 11 Jan 2010, 07:24

China knocks Germany off top spot for world exports

Scotsman, January 11, 2010

China's relentless economic march has passed another global milestone, with the Asian giant confirmed as having overtaken Germany as the world's top exporting country.

Exports for the last month of 2009 totalled $130.7 billion (about £81.6bn), data from the General Administration of Customs showed, giving a final figure for 2009 exports of $1.2 trillion (£74bn), slightly ahead of the $1.17tn (£73bn) for Germany forecast by its foreign trade organisation, BGA.

China's new status is largely symbolic but reflects the ability of its resilient, low-cost manufacturers to keep selling abroad despite a slump in global consumer demand due to the financial crisis.

December's rebound was an "important turning point" for exporters, a customs agency economist, Huang Guohua, said on state television, CCTV.

"We can say that China's export enterprises have completely emerged from their all-time low," Mr Huang said.

Stronger foreign sales of Chinese goods could help to drive the country's recovery after demand plunged in 2008, forcing thousands of factories to close and throwing millions of labourers out of work.

Boosted by a $586bn (£366bn) economic stimulus package, China's economic expansion accelerated to 8.9 per cent for the third quarter of 2009 and the government says full-year growth should be 8.3 per cent.

German economist Volker Treier predicted recently that Germany was set to lose the "world export championship" because of China's bigger size and higher population.

"By 2010, this title will be history, because the Chinese will simply outdo us due to their bigness," Treier told the German news agency DAPD.

He said that may not be a bad thing, "because if China grows, this pushes the world's economy – and that's good for export-oriented Germany as well".

China is best known as a supplier of shoes, toys, furniture and other low-tech goods, while Germany exports machinery and other higher-value products. German commentators note that their country supplies the factory equipment used by top Chinese manufacturers.

China surpassed the United States as the biggest car market in 2009 and is on track to replace Japan as the world's second-largest economy soon. China passed Germany as the third-largest economy in 2007.

China's trade surplus shrank by 34.2 per cent in 2009 to $196bn (£122bn), the customs agency said. That reflected China's stronger demand for imported raw materials and consumer goods.

The United States and the EU complain that part of China's export success is based on currency controls and improper subsidies that give its exporters an unfair advantage against foreign rivals.

Washington has imposed anti-dumping duties on imports of Chinese-made steel pipes and some other goods, while the European Union has imposed curbs on Chinese shoes.

The US and EU also complain that Beijing keeps its currency, the yuan, undervalued. Beijing broke the yuan's link to the dollar in 2005 and it rose gradually until late 2008, but has been frozen since then against the US currency in what economists say is an effort by Beijing to keep its exporters competitive.

The dollar's weakness against the euro and some other currencies pulls down the yuan and makes Chinese goods even more attractive.

Even though China overtook Germany as top exporter, the customs agency said total 2009 Chinese trade fell 13.9 per cent from 2008.
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Re: Kina: The Rise of the Dragon

Innlegg QIQrrr 11 Jan 2010, 14:06

Financial Times, January 10, 2010:Chinese banks have cemented their position as the most highly valued financial institutions, taking four of the top five slots in a ranking of banks’ share prices as a multiple of their book values. China Merchants Bank, China Citic, ICBC and China Construction Bank lead the table, followed by Itaú Unibanco of Brazil, all with a price-to-book multiple of more than three - China banks eclipse US rivals

Bloomberg, January 11, 2010: China supplanted the U.S. as the world’s largest auto market after its 2009 vehicle sales jumped 46 percent, ending more than a century of American dominance that started with the Model T Ford. The nation’s sales of passenger cars, buses and trucks rose to 13.6 million, the fastest pace in at least 10 years, according to the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers. In the U.S., sales slumped 21 percent to 10.4 million, the fewest since 1982, according to Autodata Corp. China’s vehicle sales have surged since 1999 as economic growth averaging more than 9 percent a year has helped automakers including General Motors Co. and Volkswagen AG compensate for slumping demand in the U.S. and Europe. The market will likely remain the world’s largest, even as sales slow this year on a reduction in tax cuts, according to Booz & Co. “China is becoming the center stage of development for the 21st century global auto industry,” said Bill Russo, a Beijing- based senior adviser at Booz & Co., which advises automakers. Henry Ford introduced the Model T in 1908 - China Ends U.S.’s Reign as Largest Auto Market
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Re: Kina: The Rise of the Dragon

Innlegg QIQrrr 01 Mar 2010, 20:19

Reuters, February 28, 2010: China should build the world's strongest military and move swiftly to topple the United States as the global "champion," a senior Chinese PLA officer says in a new book reflecting swelling nationalist ambitions. The call for China to abandon modesty about its global goals and "sprint to become world number one" comes from a People's Liberation Army (PLA) Senior Colonel, Liu Mingfu, who warns that his nation's ascent will alarm Washington, risking war despite Beijing's hopes for a "peaceful rise." "China's big goal in the 21st century is to become world number one, the top power," Liu writes in his newly published Chinese-language book, "The China Dream." "If China in the 21st century cannot become world number one, cannot become the top power, then inevitably it will become a straggler that is cast aside," writes Liu, a professor at the elite National Defense University, which trains rising officers - China PLA officer urges challenging U.S. dominance
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Re: Kina: The Rise of the Dragon

Innlegg QIQrrr 05 Mar 2010, 03:31

China's military not a threat: Major General

China Daily, March 4, 2010

China's military development will not challenge the United States, a People's Liberation Army (PLA) major general and member of the country's top political advisory body said on Wednesday.

"China is the only permanent member of the UN Security Council that has not achieved territorial integrity," said Luo Yuan, a member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) and senior researcher with the Academy of Military Sciences.

"We need to think more on how to preserve national integrity. We have no intention of challenging the US," he added.

Luo's remarks came just before the opening of the third session of the 11th CPPCC, in response to Senior Colonel Liu Mingfu, who recently said in his newly published book that China should build the world's strongest military.

"That's just his ambition," Luo said.

"China's big goal in the 21st century is to become the world's No 1, the top power," Liu wrote in The China Dream, which appeared on the bookshelves in Beijing just a few days ago.

Liu's 303-page book stands out for its boldness in a recent chorus of strong voices demanding a hard shove back against Washington over the US' arms sale to Taiwan and US President Barack Obama's meeting with the Dalai Lama.

"I'm very pessimistic about the future," writes Colonel Dai Xu, in another recently published book, claiming China is largely surrounded by hostile or wary countries beholden to the US. "I believe that China cannot escape the calamity of war and this calamity may come in the not-too-distant future, at most in 10 to 20 years."

Several others do not agree with the two PLA writers.

Zhao Qizheng, spokesman for the CPPCC, said China's military power does not threaten other countries.

"China's defense spending was just about 1.4 or 1.5 percent of the country's GDP in recent years. US defense spending was more than 4 percent of its GDP, which is three times as big as China's," Zhao said on Tuesday.

China's military budget in 2009 was 480 billion yuan ($70 billion). Zhao said only about a third of China's military spending went into the research, development and purchase of new weapons. "Maybe it's not enough to buy a B2 bomber," he added.

US military spending, by contrast, was about $494 billion, according to the Washington-based Center for Defense Information.

"China's development does not aim at challenging any other country. China does not aim to change the current international system either," said another anonymous PLA officer and researcher with a top military think tank.

Even though he admitted that Beijing has "all the necessary" sophisticated weapons, "we cannot compare with the US in terms of quantity".

"Personally, I do not agree with big talks by some scholars, (which) could only misdirect China's national image," he said. "We should do more, but speak less."
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Re: Kina: The Rise of the Dragon

Innlegg QIQrrr 01 Mai 2010, 10:18

BBC News, April 30, 2010: The 2010 World Expo has opened in the city of Shanghai in what China hopes will be further proof of its rising global influence. "Expo 2010 Shanghai is now open!" Chinese President Hu Jintao declared during the gala opening. Tens of thousands of fireworks and lasers then lit up the city's riverfront - in what organisers promised would be the biggest-ever multimedia event, the BBC's Chris Hogg in Shanghai says. Some 70 million visitors - mostly Chinese - are expected to visit the Expo, which will be open for the next six months. Chinese local media report that the cost of staging the event could be as much as $58bn (£38bn) - more than was spent on the Beijing Olympics in 2008. Some estimates say this figure could eventually be even higher - China opens World Expo 2010 in Shanghai

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Re: Kina: The Rise of the Dragon

Innlegg QIQrrr 01 Jun 2010, 11:07

The New York Times, May 31, 2010: A Chinese supercomputer has been ranked as the world’s second-fastest machine, surpassing European and Japanese systems and underscoring China’s aggressive commitment to science and technology. The Dawning Nebulae, based at the National Supercomputing Center in Shenzhen, China, has achieved a sustained computing speed of 1.27 petaflops — the equivalent of one thousand trillion mathematical operations a second — in the latest semiannual ranking of the world’s fastest 500 computers. The newest ranking was made public on Monday at the International Supercomputer Conference in Hamburg, Germany. Supercomputers are used for scientific and engineering problems as diverse as climate simulation and automotive design. The Chinese machine is actually now ranked as the world’s fastest in terms of theoretical peak performance, but that is considered a less significant measure than the actual computing speed achieved on a standardized computing test. The world’s fastest computer remains the Cray Jaguar supercomputer, based at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. Last November it was measured at 1.75 petaflops - Chinese Supercomputer Is Ranked World’s Second-Fastest, Challenging U.S. Dominance
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Re: Kina: The Rise of the Dragon

Innlegg QIQrrr 30 Jul 2010, 16:14

CNBC, July 30, 2010: China has overtaken Japan to become the world's second-largest economy, the fruit of three decades of rapid growth that has lifted hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. Depending on how fast its exchange rate rises, China is on course to overtake the United States and vault into the No.1 spot sometime around 2025, according to projections by the World Bank, Goldman Sachs and others. China came close to surpassing Japan in 2009 and the disclosure by a senior official that it had now done so comes as no surprise. Indeed, Yi Gang, China's chief currency regulator, mentioned the milestone in passing in remarks published on Friday. "China, in fact, is now already the world's second-largest economy," he said in an interview with China Reform magazine posted on the website of his agency, the State Administration of Foreign Exchange. Cruising past Japan might give China bragging rights, but its per-capita income of about $3,800 a year is a fraction of Japan's or America's. "China is still a developing country, and we should be wise enough to know ourselves," Yi said, when asked whether the time was ripe for the yuan to become an international currency - China Becomes Second Biggest World Economy
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Re: Kina: The Rise of the Dragon

Innlegg QIQrrr 08 Okt 2010, 15:28

Justeringer i forhold til gjeld og folketall gir et noe annet bilde, men dog:

    The Wall Street Journal, October 8, 2010: Having overtaken Japan as the world’s second largest economy, the Chinese consumer could dethrone Japan from another accolade in the next few years, according to a new report by Credit Suisse. In its first Global Wealth Report, Credit Suisse predicts that total household wealth in China could more than double to $35 trillion by 2015 from $16.5 trillion at the moment. China currently is third in terms of the total share of global wealth after the U.S. and Japan, at $54.6 trillion and $21 trillion respectively, and is 35% ahead of France, the wealthiest European country - China to Overtake Japan in Global Wealth Rankings?
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